Urban Economic Development

"A Living Laboratory" The City of Chattanooga, USA

In 1969, Chattanooga was the most polluted city in the USA; by 1990 it was recognised by the US Environmental Protection Agency as the nation's best turn around story. Chattanooga's vision is to become a city where ecological initiatives generate a strong economic base, nurture social institutions and enhance the natural and made environment. Numerous collaborative efforts have generated the capital resources, the political commitment and the civic momentum to tackle complex problems such as affordable housing, public education, transportation alternatives, urban design, conservation of natural areas, parks and greenways, air and water pollution, recycling and job training, downtown river front development and neighbourhood vitality.

Civic culture is key to Chattanooga's successes and future. Building on this civic culture, the City has turned its attention to its Southside inner city neighbourhood, once ridden with crime, drugs and violence. Progress to date includes: bulldozing a dilapidated shopping centre to make way for a retail residential complex housing a business incubator for resident owned and operated businesses, an expanded early childhood intervention programme, a mini-precinct police station and social and recreational programmes for adults and children. Other activities include: the building of a new sports facility linked to job creation and job training for surrounding neighbourhoods; renovation of the Grand Hotel into 36 one-bedroom apartments for low-income residents with retail space on the first floor; and the addition of tree and street lighting to attract private investment. Chattanooga continues to demonstrate that sustainable development is a process not a result.

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Tomaszow Enterprise 'Incubator' Foundation, Poland

Unemployment is an economic and social problem that transcends political and national boundaries although its extent manifests itself to varying degrees and proportions in different localities. The objective of the initiative was to improve local vocational training capacity and reduce unemployment, which was well above the national average. This was done through the creation of the Employment Forum that undertook co-ordination and reorganisation of local vocational training programs based on a needs assessment, and built a data base on local training needs, training capacity and training graduates. The Forum affiliated representatives of training organisations, public officials from 10 counties, employers and unemployed persons that worked together to improve local information flow, develop better training courses and bring together newly trained individuals with potential employers. The program is currently being expanded to include another four cities in the Piotrkow Province, and the cities of Opole and Zyrardow.

Achievements to date include: the creation of a coalition of vocational training organisations in Tomaszow providing co-ordinated vocational training programs and developing new training schemes for the unemployed; completion of a survey of 6,000 local employers assessing training needs and hiring plans; developing and setting up databases on employers, training institutions and unemployed graduates. 65 % of trainees found employment or are currently continuing training education.

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Alternative Development Standards: Towards More Efficient Use of Land, Ottawa-Carleton, Canada

In response to concerns related to the costs and amount of land devoted to residential development, the Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton has adopted guidelines for alternative development standards to reduce the cost of housing, create more compact development, and make better use of land. The guidelines include minimum standards for local road allowances, lot sizes and utility placement. A pilot project has been undertaken in partnership with Minto Developments Inc. and the City of Gloucester to test and monitor the performance of the alternative standards against the project's objectives of reducing development costs, offering affordable and marketable housing, and providing safe, effective and cost efficient servicing.

Preliminary monitoring results of the pilot project indicate that the use of smaller lot sizes and road allowances generate significant development and housing costs savings:

• Development cost savings of $8,500 per unit;
• House cost savings of $8,500 per unit;
• 48% reduction in land required for semi-detached homes;
• 46% reduction in land required for row housing units.

Contact Person: Nick Tunnacliffe
(613) 560-2053

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Relocation of Street Trading, Successful Experiences of Recovery of Public, Peru

During the last decades, the Lima Historical Centre, one of the internationally renowned areas with the highest cultural and architectural value in Peru and South America, underwent processes of urban blight, saturation of public spaces, deterioration of services and unplanned changes in land use. Unfortunately, previous administrations' attempts to solve these problems were unsuccessful. Street trading accelerated the process of deterioration of the city and was compounded further by recession and unemployment.

Since 1996, the successful intervention by the City Council in co-ordination with street traders and private investors, their relocation to business areas in the metropolis, and the reconditioning and revival of important public spaces have made it possible for the population to regain their identity. As a result, the historical centre of Lima has once again become a place to live and work. 90% of the street traders were accommodated in 50 shopping centres and fairs, occupying 149,000 m2 whose construction and rehabilitation were funded by the private sector (US$59 million). The remaining 10% were incorporated in the Historical Centre tourist network. 12 squares and parks, 5 promenades and avenues and 194 roads were reconditioned. The city has realised savings of up to one million dollars in public cleaning, due to the reduction of solid residues (from 13,140 metric tons in 1996 to 4,672 metric tons in 1999). Revaluation of real estate and public space heritage has seen the values of property appreciate by up to 6 times.

Contact Person: Abel Terry Egusquiza
Tel: (511) 4-279761/4-278653
Fax: (511) 4-266080
E-mail: ahterry@munlima.gob.pe / ahterry@hotmail.com

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Inter-City Links

Solid Waste Management and Environmental sanitation - a public-private management program, San Salvador, El Salvador

This Public-Private Management practice is based on the modernisation of institutional entities brought about by the new political environment in the Metropolitan area of San Salvador. The area is composed of 10 municipalities and has a population of 2 million inhabitants. The office responsible for metropolitan planning and urban affairs (OPAMSS) initiated a process of participatory and democratic decision-making and the efficient use of resources.

The Municipality of San Salvador, together with the 9 other Municipalities of the Metropolitan Area, joined efforts with the private sector, NGOs, CBOs and a University to develop and implement an Integrated Solid Waste Management Program. The idea was to cope with the critical environmental problems caused by inadequate solid waste management. This program brought innovative procedures to solid waste management: street cleaning, separation at source, composting, recycling, and the construction and operation of a sanitary landfill. Partnerships between the public and private sector, including micro-enterprises, co-operatives, utility companies and a Canadian company were established. The Municipality, NGOs, CBOs and the University undertook awareness-building and educational campaigns in order to improve habits and promote compliance among micro-enterprises. A training-educational program was implemented for waste collectors and residents.

The Private-Public Solid Waste Management practice has redressed the negative repercussions on public and environmental health produced by the inadequate collection and dumping practices. Through the practice there has been inter-municipal cooperation and the establishment of effective partnerships between the public, private and civil society sectors. There has been tangible impact achieved including namely improved waste collection and sanitation in poor settlements in 20%; the treatment of 1,100 tons of solid waste per day, the reduction of clandestine dumping by 40%, the creation of 5 cooperatives and 5 micro enterprises (in San Salvador, Nejapa and Apopa) and the social reinsertion of 300 waste collectors.

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Street Shops as solution to lawless occupation of the Public Property, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Ouagadougou is a cosmopolitan town of 1,044,000 inhabitants. 10% of this population is in the informal sector. The presence of informal sector was a contributing factor in the increase in lawless temporary installations and these presented a problem for management's policy of the town and for traffic. These lawless occupation of the public property were the reason of more accidents, unhygienic conditions, insecurity (risk of fire).

Under the auspices of the town council of Ouagadougou in 1996, a plan to integrate the informal sector with the formal sector. The project's goals were to guarantee the security of road users from the lawless occupations of public property, which were more often than not, causes of accidents, and to give a dynamism to informal sector, an important element of urban economy. Resources were initially mobilised from the communal budget. Gradually, it became difficult for the municipality to fund the practice and consequently strategies like decentralised co-operation (through Agence Francaise de Development) and co-operation with LOUDUN were pursued.

The initiative, which involved the active participation of the informal sector traders and other stakeholders, resulted in 365 modern street shops constructed with local materials. The initiative offers the partners of the informal sector secure land tenure and stability that permits them to sell better. This means that the shops give the informal sector an opportunity to integrate better into the new urban structure and maintain new forms of partnership.

Contact person: Mr. Vincent T. Dabilgou
Tel: (226)30-6816/30-68-17/30-68

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Popular Habitat Program, COSTA RICA

Building affordable houses is not an end but a means to achieve community development. In Costa Rica, with a population of 3,015,000, housing shortage reached a critical stage following the financial crisis of the eighties, which resulted in the emergence of marginal areas and slums in the city of San Jose. This shortage effected the least favoured classes of the population, exacerbating their social exclusion.

Families are actively involved in the planning, execution and administration of the Popular Habitat Program. The programme started off in 1988 as a bilateral assistance project to construct new housing for low-income families and to remediate the housing shortage in the city. To date the community is becoming increasingly involved in all aspects of the programme. Alternative methods of financing are being pursued and obtained to scale up and to sustain the project, resulting in the establishment of a revolving fund managed under a trusteeship.

Over 17,000 families have gained access to decent housing, helping to reduce the housing shortage in the city. The participatory nature and a strong emphasis on community capacity building, enabled over 30,000 of the newly housed people have training in various fields related to operations and maintenance, project management and administration. This has created employment and increased income. Community participation and capacity building have considerably strengthened community spirit and involvement in civic affairs and in improving the overall living environment. Another spin-off of the participatory process is the unique approach where each neighbourhood designs its own housing projects demonstrating that there can be no single model in responding to housing needs and demand. The needs of the poor vary just as much if not more than other segments of the population and housing solutions will vary according to the conditions, desires and necessities of the individual. Several international entities and institutions have studied the model of the Popular Habitat Programme and its principles have been adopted by other projects in Nicaragua, El Salvador, Guatemala and South Africa. The experience of this programme has been taken into account for NGO training in the area of housing and development of Human Settlements

Contact Person: Eloísa Ulibarri Pernús
Tel: (506) 247-00-00
Fax: (506) 236-51-78
Email: Fuprovi@fuprovi.org

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Sustainable Human Settlements Pty Ltd, Australia

Globalisation has had a significant and negative impact on Australia's manufacturing and construction employment base. With a population of 751,225, Brisbane (Australia's fourth largest urban centre) and its surroundings is characterised by high unemployment, a high level of under-utilised human capital and an over emphasis on 'training' for jobs that do not exist. Initiated in 1999 Sustainable Human Settlements Pty Ltd helps establish ecological and social equity by challenging and re-modelling conventional microeconomic and urban planning methodologies via an urban forum that promotes community economic development. The objectives are to reduce poverty and poverty related crime while improving health and housing conditions within a local environmental context. SHS Pty LTD has also been associated with Queensland to provide a new vocational training course in the construction industry and the course is known as Sustainable Urban Development and Construction. Through this association SHS Pty LTD has negotiated the use of the construction training centre's facility located within Brisbane to manufacture the Eco-Villas and Space Cell housing solutions. Through co-operative employment strategies a diverse group (indigenous, multicultural and mainstream) of the long term unemployed are encouraged to re-enter the workforce via the manufacture of housing solutions.

Contact Person: Mr. Philip Little
Tel: 617 3844 3780
Fax: 617 3844 3780
E-mail: iskander@optusnet.com.au

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Urban - rural Links

The Kipepeo "Butterfly" Project, Kenya

The Kipepeo project is aimed at conserving bio-diversity through poverty alleviation initiatives. Arabuko-Sokoke Forest on the north coast of Kenya is internationally recognised because of its endemic and endangered species of birds and mammals. It had come under intense pressure from a rapidly growing rural population that was hard pressed for land, jobs and suffered from damage to crops and disrupted livelihood caused by forest wildlife. A 1993 survey indicated that only 41% of the forest edge community wished to conserve the forest. To meet this challenge, two Kenyan non-governmental organisations discovered an innovative solution - butterflies.

By rearing butterflies for export to the live butterfly exhibition industries in Europe and America, the forest edge communities were able to earn substantial revenues without clearing the forest for subsistent farming. The cumulative export and community earnings now exceed US $ 137,000. For the individual farmer, butterfly earning is estimated to contribute some 73% of their cash income. In addition, studies indicate that this result has been achieved without adverse affect to the wild butterfly population. There was a change of heart as evident from the results of a 1997 survey, which indicated that 84% of the forest-edge community wish to conserve the forest. The Kipepeo Project has shown that a cottage industry can be harnessed to wider social goals such as poverty alleviation and environmental protection.

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Culturally Appropriate Economic Development- The Metis Settlements of Alberta, Canada

Metis Settlements are located in the Province of Alberta in Canada and are home to the 'forgotten' Canadian aboriginal group. The fundamental challenge facing the new local governments was balancing traditional, cultural, community and environmental values with economic development opportunities (such as oil and gas development) in the face of growing social problems (such poverty).

In March 1997, Gift Lake Metis Settlement established a partnership with EcoPlan International to help develop a community-based, participatory decision support model based on traditional Metis values to assist with local governance. Some of the more important results include the development of a cultural value-based model that promotes better communication about balancing traditional values and modern development; initiation of economic activities that incorporate culture and modern enterprise such as ecotourism and wild game ranching; the development and employment of a 'green accounting' model for governance and negotiations with resource companies; culturally appropriate environmental monitoring; knowledge sharing through the development of a resource centre; internet access for all Settlements and the development of a website; and, traditional land use maps that have been (or are being) incorporated into policy and bylaws.

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Program for Credit to Small Production and Vocational Enterprises, Jordan

The Housing and Development Corporation?s mandate in Jordan includes developing regions with sub-standard services in the Kingdom and contributing to the solution of housing problems.

The corporation established a Program for Credit for Production and Vocational Enterprises in 1966, which operates through local centers established by the corporation. The philosophy behind these centers is based on self-management i.e. resources generated from self-financing projects and activities by the community.

To realize this objective a scheme of small credit or loans (JD100 -1500) was developed with a monthly three-year payback period. The loans are used for improving income-generating activities of the borrowers through the establishment of new enterprises or expanding existing ones. Women were given priority in the granting of loans with emphasis on sustainable professional and vocational activities. One of the conditions is that the beneficiary contributes at least 15% of the capital and presents a feasible venture. The feasibility studies are conducted through a joint effort between the applicant or owner of the enterprise and the staff of the program. The program focused its attention on food enterprises and arts and crafts including traditional village embroidery.

Contact Person: Najah Nafe, Ghassan Abu Nasser
Tel: 962 6 464 4307 /564 5982
Fax: 962 6 553 8226 / 462 8938

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Support to the Creation of Rural Micro-enterprise development in Morocco

Water supply has always been a problem in rural areas and Morocco is no exception. In contrast safe water supply in urban areas has over the years improved with an individual connection rate of more than 85%. Traditional supply methods don't work because large water supply companies are not interested in the low returns and margins involved. Starting in 1996, the national office for drinking water began an initiative for rural water supply based on establishment of community-based micro-enterprises. This involves provision of micro-credit and training of young agents in technical and management skills for operations and maintenance, assistance in legal and administrative procedures for registering enterprises to access credit and marketing as well as other forms of assistance during an initial two-year start-up period.

Since 1990, over 195 micro enterprises have been installed each providing 10 to 15 jobs for local youth in rural areas in preventive maintenance of fittings, electrical appliances, buildings, green spaces, and water analysis. A pilot project initiated in collaboration with UNDP and involving women-operated enterprises was also implemented focusing on quality control aspects and providing useful lessons on how best to mainstream and promote such enterprises. Other lessons have been applied to decentralize and simplify contracting and procurement procedures. The sustainability of the initiative is evidenced by growth of initial revolving fund, which is now being used for micro-enterprise start-ups in other sectors.

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Area Based Assessment Of Property Tax In Patna, Bihar (India)

Area based assessment method as initiated in Patna Municipal Corporation has emerged as a legally tested, administratively tried and practically feasible method of property tax (PT) assessment in India. The Patna model presents a simplified assessment procedure based on Location, Construction and Use. This has minimised the discretionary and ad-hoc nature of assessment and has increased acceptability by taxpayers and their compliance. The model has also prompted the inclusion of stakeholders in the areas of Municipal Finance such as Central/State Government, urban local governments and political and official functionaries to replicate it in a wider context.

The model initiated in Patna Municipal Corporation in 1993 has facilitated reduction in tax rate from 44% to 9% of annual assessed value. Despite these reduction the current revenues have escalated from US$ 315,660 to 1.34 million. To begin with the model was initiated in 1/27th part of the Patna City and now covers half of the City. It has demonstrated a potential of tenfold increase in revenues while drastically reducing rates. The model has earned legal sanctity from Honorable Supreme Court of India on the grounds of reasonableness and fairness. Other Corporations of the State of Bihar have also adopted the Patna model. The Government of India has since issued guidelines to state governments to modify their assessment procedure of PT in line with the Patna model. The state government of Uttar Pradesh has already issued notification to enable urban local governments to change their PT assessment to area based method. The government of Madhya Pradesh has also modified its assessment procedure. The Government of Tamil Nadu has formulated new legislation on the basis of Patna model of taxation.

The model brings additional financial revenue to the kitty of municipal governments along with equity, fairness and acceptability by people. This enables local authorities to better respond to their citizens in terms of basic services, environmental health and safety and preventive health care. The Patna Municipal Corporation has encouraged the Government of India to issue new policy directives for Tax reform at national level. Simplification of procedures, reduced rate of tax with increased revenue is worth replicating in most developing countries.

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Development of Informal Financial Institutions, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

The Association of Business Women of Uzbekistan was established with the aim to improve the status of women living in Uzbekistan and achieve economic empowerment of the population living in rural areas. In Uzbekistan, women make up 51% of the total population and 45.1% of the workforce. Under conditions of economic transition, from a controlled to free market economy, unemployment levels were extremely high affecting the entire population and impacting strongly on women who were in most cases marginalised in comparison to men, a situation made worse by strong traditional beliefs. Before 1996, the state could adequately address unemployment using administrative sanctions since the path towards the liberalization of the market economy had been started. In 1997, the government halted the liberalization process; foreign currency conversion was cancelled; governmental management of export and import operations and a strict system of taxation were introduced. The changes in the macro-economic policy resulted in feminization of poverty with women accounting for over 90 % of the unemployed persons; gender inequality in access to social services, labor-market and financial resources and a financial/bank system that did not support growth of the private sector.

To address this situation, the Association launched the 'Integrated Program on Improvement of the Situation with Women in Rural Areas of Uzbekistan.' Taking into account the peculiarities of the rural Uzbek woman: low mobility; part time employment; desire to work not far from home and prevalence of gender stereotypes, the program includes: education modules on legal issues, job training, professional development, involvement of women in micro-finance and the establishment of credit unions. A "legal-literacy" program was introduced to empower women. This programme was deemed necessary to counter the then existing stereotype that depicted women as being mere servants to their husbands without any rights. The Association partnered with Winrock International, USAID\Eurasia Fund and a network of local NGOs during its implementation. The achievements of the initiative include:

• 12,000 women were trained and 2,500 business women obtained credits;
• Creation of jobs for women;
• The government's attitudes toward the activities of NGOs has changed positively;
• The program well satisfied the goal of gender equality by providing various services and improved the life of women in Uzbekistan.

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Orchard Park and North Hull Enterprises Limited, United Kingdom

Orchard Park and North Hull were established as resettlement areas for residents following the decline of the fishing industry in the 1960s and the subsequent slum clearance of the Hull docks. Since then, these two neighbourhoods have suffered from high levels of unemployment, exclusion from the local economy, a high welfare dependency rate, poor housing and a disproportionately large number of single parent households as well as drug abuse and a high crime rate. The Orchard Park and North Hill Enterprises was established in 1989 as a community-business partnership, independent of local and national government. It works on a non-profit basis and aims to improve the local economic structure through creation of jobs that, at the same time, contributes to enhanced self-belief and dignity.

Since its inception, over 4,000 residents have been assisted in getting employed, 339 new businesses formed and 735 new jobs created. A training centre was also created, which has provided training to over 1,000 persons. Every year about 34,000 people visit OPNHE and seek advice on employment, training and business support issues. Several projects have been initiated including the UPBEAT project which is a successful intermediate labour market model that provides participants with a year of full time, waged employment in a local small-scale micro enterprise, coupled with related vocational training. This project simultaneously assists disadvantaged people to get training and jobs. Another initiative that was used to socially re-engage the socially and economically excluded residents was through the use of arts. The Achieving Real Transportation (A.R.T) project provides free arts activities for local people which in turn raises their aspirations and self-esteem. Through its business support unit, OPNHE supports new businesses and stimulates locally based economic activity by providing a range of intensive help for start-ups, micro-firms and small scale micro-enterprises. All projects are available to men and women, regardless of age, race, sexuality and disability. This practice shows how employment creation can contribute to social rehabilitation and inclusion when sufficient commitment is generated through local initiative.

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The sustainable revival of a little community, Italy

The population of Italy stands at 57.4 million (UN, 2003) with a GNI per capita: US $19,080 (World Bank, 2002). Fossato di Vico is a town with a population of 2,500 people situated in the region of the Umbria, Italy. A high level of emigration and marginal economic and social state has affected the town with a progressively ageing population. In 1997 a violent earthquake occurred in central Italy and the town suffered numerous damages to building and property; 60% in total, of which 12% were rendered totally unusable.

The Municipality commission a study to look into the strengths and weaknesses of the territory. And Subsequently established priorities, which included, increasing the historical and environmental profile of the territory, reorganizing the Council Administration for efficiency and transparency, stimulating public/private partnership for all economic, cultural and social initiatives. Increasing job opportunities, for women and youth. Building of new houses and the restoring historical ones. Accelerating reconstruction, following the 1997 earthquake with quality and security.

Apart from the reconstruction of houses, the Municipality has accelerated significant marketing initiatives to highlight the cultural and environmental characteristics of the territory, aiming to create private partnership to support the economic and social development. Supported by an efficient and transparent administrative management of the problems produced by the development, more and more partners have invested in the territory, doubling the numbers of jobs. The recycling of waste at all the levels has been achieved. Above all, the private sector is now co-operating with social and cultural initiatives. All these factors have contributed in giving the Municipality a sense of vitality and alertness, as though it has come alive after a long sleep.

A municipal newspaper, published every 4 months informs the citizens about the state of projects and opportunities available. In addition, the Council, in agreement with the various associations, has organized thematic seminars. This has allowed for concrete answers to be given and has decreased the time gap between planning and implementation.

The jobs have doubled in five years, from 720 to 1,460. Unemployment of the Municipality and of the neighboring municipality is virtually zero. Female unemployment has been reduced from 40% to 5%. Women are active in the field of commerce and services. An increase in population of 6% has occurred in the last three years after it had remained unchanged from 1970 to 2000. This increase has allowed the maintenance of the fundamental services such as schools and health services which otherwise would have ceased only to a lack of users.

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Implementing an integrated management system for forest ecosystems producing wild mushrooms in the Valdorba district. Rural sustainable development project in the Valdorba district, Spain

This practice, based in Valdorba in the Navarre Region of Spain, began in 1990 and is still continuing. The population of Spain is 42.7 million (official figure, 2003), with a GNI per capita of US $14,580 (World Bank, 2002). The aim is to generate income in a depopulated rural area that is currently undergoing sufficient demographic growth and to create jobs for unemployed people. The project is based on the economic development of local organisations through the rational use of local environmental resources. A system for the sustainable management of mycological resources has been implemented, which is reproducible in developing countries and depressed rural areas, and creates jobs for women, as well as an eco-tourism project and various plans for the use of natural resources.

Achievements include home care for all old people, job creation for young people, women, and people over the age of 45, and the setting up of an assembly of leaders, local representatives and rural agents interested in the development of Valdorba. Work is also carried out to facilitate access to housing and the renovation of unique buildings.

Local authorities with wide political differences have managed to join forces to organise two fairs for local truffles, as well as another joint service and tourism initiatives. This practice brings them together in a shared project: a supra-municipal administration centre.

Considerable experience has been gained in the group-working dynamics of all the agents involved in this practice.

Home care cover is currently available for all old people requesting it. Great progress has been made in providing basic services that were unthinkable only 15 years ago water supply and sewerage systems, rubbish collection, paved streets, infrastructure, social and cultural services, telephone lines, Internet connections, etc. Statistics of de facto residents have shown a steady increase year after year. The unemployment figures are also extremely impressive there is hardly any unemployment in the valley any more.

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Urban Agriculture Programme, Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina

In 2001, Argentina was in turmoil as public anger over a deepening recession and widespread poverty sparked riots, looting, vandalism, and angry protests. Rosario City, population 906,004 located in the Santa Fe province was no exception. The Urban Agriculture Programme (UAP) was initiated after the economic crisis, which manifested itself in Rosario with poverty levels rising to 60 % of the population.

The programme was initiated to respond by providing sustainable means of food production in urban centres for a population whose poverty line is US$ 90. The objective was to promote a constructive process of endogenous development, with participatory strategies and co-operative forms of production, transformation, commercialisation, as well as healthy food consumption.

The impact of the programme has been to make low income families feel valued and recognised as actors forming part of an inclusive process (especially women). So far 791 community gardens have been established and this has led to the improvement of the urban neighbourhood landscape as well as the quality of life of its inhabitants. Currently, more than 10,000 families are directly linked to the production of organic vegetables, which are consumed by 40,000 people. This has been possible through the creation of an economy of solidarity network that includes 342 productive groups. Each group participates weekly in three of the locally established fairs, deriving a monthly income ranging between US$ 40 and US$ 150.

The produce from the community gardens has a high social value in terms of quality. One example has been the development of a production plan to supply soup kitchens and schools within the framework of a common social network. The poor now have access to secure tenure on the land that the community gardens occupy. This has been possible through the institutionalisation of urban agriculture (UA) as a local government public policy. The latter was instituted through Ordinance HCD 7341/02 of Rosario's Deliberative Town Council and Decree of the Secretary of Social Promotion N 808/03 while the use of lands for the AU is regulated by Ordinance N 4713/89 and 7341/02. The market fairs are regulated by the Ordinance N 7358/02 of the Deliberative Town Council.

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