Publications on Water & Sanitation
Strategic approaches to urban sanitation provision

Global Environmental Sanitation Initiative (GESI)
Parkinson Jonathan

The email conference on "Strategic approaches to urban sanitation provision" conference is part of Global Environmental Sanitation Initiative. The purpose of the conference is to examine how the key concepts underlying the strategic sanitation approach (SSA) have been addressed in operational terms on the ground, highlighting examples where SSA ideas have been applied, what problems were identified in their application, and what issues require further consideration or clarification with the approach as a whole.

Sharing of information on sanitation policies, programmes and research activities is at the heart of the Global Environmental Sanitation Initiative (GESI). The GESI information database is proposed to have two main elements:

• Agency-based information
• Country-based information with an introductory section on national policies and strategies for sanitation, a list of agencies involved in the sector, including donors and NGOs, contacts for more information.

Further information is from the GESI One World web site at

We encourage you to visit the site and you will find many interesting links and
source of further information related to the provision of sanitation in urban and peri-urban areas.

We would also like to draw your attention to a few further sources of information which you might find interesting.

A number of these documents are availble as Adobe Acrobat portable data files (PDF) files. If you have any queries relating to downloading and reading any of these documents, please contact the GESI list owners at

Further information and background reading

Sanitation Promotion Kit - Water supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council

including "The problem of sanitation" by Pete Kolsky - London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

UNDP-World Bank Water and Sanitation Program

The document "Toward a Strategic Sanitation Approach - Improving the Sustainability of Urban Sanitation in Developing Countries" written by Albert Wright is freely available from the UNDP/WorldBank Water and Sanitation

"Learning What Works - A 20 year Retrospective View on International Water and Sanitation Cooperation" by Maggie Black (1998).

"Water and Sanitation Services for the Poor: Innovating through Field Experience - Program Strategy 1999-2003"

On-line publications from the Water and Engineering Development Centre

"On-Plot Sanitation In Low-Income Urban Communities - Guidelines for selection" by Andrew Cotton and Darren Saywell (1998)

"WATSAN 2000: Proceedings of the UNICEF Orientation/Training Workshop for Water and Sanitation Staff" (1990). by Cotton, A.P., Hutton, L.G.,
Franceys, R.W.A., And Pickford, J.A.

"On-plot Sanitation in Low-income Urban Communities: A review of literature" (1995) by Cotton, A.P., Franceys, R.W.A., Pickford, J.A. And
Saywell, D.L.

"Lessons Learnt from NGO Experiences in the Water Sector: Proceedings of a WELL/DFID workshop" (1998). edited by Ian Smout.

"Water and NGOs: Proceedings of a DFID workshop" (1996). edited by Ian Smout

IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre

"Towards Better Programming: A Manual on School Sanitation and Hygiene United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)"

"Criteria for Successful Sanitation Programmes in Low Income Areas in the South"

WaterAid Evaluation Summaries: Evaluating NGO projects
Over the past sixteen years, WaterAid and its partners have been working together to develop pragmatic approaches to integrating these three components in community-managed water, hygiene and sanitation projects. WaterAid has been carrying out evaluations of its Country programmes throughout its operations.

UNICEF Case Studies on Environmental Sanitation and Hygiene
From 10 to 13 June 1998, UNICEF organized a Workshop on Enviromental Sanitation and Hygiene in New York. During this workshop, participants from 17 countries presented case studies on topics such as school hygiene, sanitation promotion, integrated approaches, and urban sanitation. Abstracts of the case studies are presented here.

The Environmental Health Project (EHP), USAID
EHP provides technical assistance in the areas of water supply, sanitation, wastewater, solid waste, and air pollution.

"Providing Urban Environmental Services for the Poor: Lessons Learned from Three Pilot Projects" (1998). McCommon, Carolyn S., Perez, Eduardo A., and Rosensweig, Fred.

"Beyond Participation: Locally Based Demand for Environmental Health in Peri-Urban Areas" (1996). Varley, Robert C. G., Yacoob, May, and Smith, Scott

"Community-Based Approaches for Environmental Health in Secondary Cities in West Africa and the Scale-Up Process" (1998). Proceedings of a workshop held in Cotonou, Benin.

"Review of an NGO Based Peri-Urban Environmental Health Project in Peru" (1995). McCommon, Carolyn and Altobelli, Laura.

"A Review of Sanitation Program Evaluations in Developing Countries" (1995) LaFond, Anne.

WHO Water, Sanitation and Health Programme
Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Questionnaire - 1999

This questionnaire is part of a global exercise, which is being conducted jointly by WHO and UNICEF, to assess the status of the water supply and sanitation sector. It is intended for collecting national water and sanitation information including national figures on water supply and sanitation coverage. This exercise will draw upon existing sources of population-based data for discussion and review with relevant national government agencies.

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